In this edition, we're providing you with a selection of articles and resources specific to supporting victims of human trafficking.
Human trafficking is a complex and multi-faceted issue and is becoming more and more prevalent in our news. As coalitions, it is our job to draw together various partners and make sure that everyone has the victims' best interest in mind. As the edition unfolds, you'll hear how coalitions are responding through several lenses. Let's begin by coming to common understanding about a few basic issues regarding human trafficking:
First, there is a distinct difference between human trafficking and sex work. While there is much debate about whether individuals truly ever choose to engage in sex work, that discussion is beyond the scope of this ReShape. It is important, however that we as victim advocates examine our own personal views on sex work. Without a clear understanding of all the nuances and complexities in and between sex work and human trafficking, we cannot effectively guide our member programs and help trafficking victims. The chart below, from the National Sexual Violence Resource Center's publication "Human Trafficking: A Guide for Victim Advocates" shows the fluidity of prostitution and sex trafficking:
Second, we must take into consideration that although each of our states have laws regarding the age of consent, not everyone under the age of 18 is necessarily a trafficking victim. This also means that even though a person may legally be an adult, they might be still be victimized or trafficked. As we know, abuse and violence can happen at any age.
Third, there are many perspectives and philosophies on the best way to serve victims of human trafficking. There is no definitive right answer, but as coalitions, we must make sure that we are aware of the conversations happening in our state, and fight to ensure we stay victim-centered. The articles in this ReShape represent three different approaches to and experiences in working to end human trafficking.
In the first article, Rosemary Logan, Esq., and Kiricka Yarbough Smith, of the North Carolina Coalition Against Sexual Assault, talk about NCCASA became involved in anti-trafficking movement in North Carolina and how they are now one of the major players in the state. Read the full article here.
The second article, "Victim, Survivor, or Social Deviant? Approached to Addressing Human Trafficking" by Amanda McKinney at the Ohio Alliance to End Sexual Violence gives background about the different ways trafficking can look and how we can get involved. Read the full article here.
Stephanie Gerhardt from the North Dakota Council on Abused Women Services/Coalition Against Sexual Assault in North Dakota talks about North Dakota's unique experiences in dealing with human trafficking during the oil fracking boom. Read the full article here.
Helping Sexual Assault Survivors with Multiple Victimizations and Needs: A Guide for Agencies Serving Sexual Assault Survivors, Jill Davies, National Sexual Violence Resource Center
A Global Alliance Against Forced Labor, International Labor Organization: A global report under the follow-up to the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles And Rights At Work
Hiding in Plain Sight, The University of Rhode Island: This is a guide which places particular emphasis on identifying victims of sexual trafficking as defined by the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000. The document offers a definition of trafficking and suggests how and where one might find a victim of sexual trafficking. The guide also addresses reporting procedures for both the general public and mandated reporters, and concludes by describing the services available to victims of trafficking
Human Trafficking: A Guide for Victim Advocates, National Sexual Violence Resource Center: This technical assistance guide provides information about the prevalence of sexual violence throughout various forms of human trafficking. The content of this guide is intended to support community-based advocates working in their outreach and service provision to trafficking victims. This guide includes information from the research on trafficking, a discussion.
Existe Ayuda Toolkit, Office of Justice Programs
Human Trafficking of Children in the United States: A Fact Sheet for Schools: This fact sheet was developed for those working in school settings and provides an overview of human trafficking, how it affects schools, tips for identifying victims, and steps for reporting human trafficking. A list of resources and publications is also provided.
VAWA 2013 and TVPRA: What Practitioners Need to Know, ASISTA: The Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013 (VAWA 2013), combined with the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA), was signed into law on March 7, 2013. This practice advisory provides an overview of substantive changes and technical fixes both in VAWA and TVPRA as well as practice pointers for attorneys and advocates on how to work with these new changes.
Human Trafficking: Modern Enslavement of Immigrant Women in the United States, ACLU: This fact sheet is in a question and answer format. Some of the questions along with their answers are: What is human trafficking? What drives the trafficking industry? What judicial remedies are available to victims of trafficking?
A Legal Guide for Advocates Providing Services to Victims of Human Trafficking: This legal guide contains information in chapter format ranging from An Overview of Human Trafficking, T Nonimmigrant Visas, Continued Presence, Benefits for Victims, Special Immigrant Juvenile Status for Children, and resources for advocates.
Ethical and Safety Recommendations for Interviewing Trafficked Women: This report is designed to help service problems, researchers, and members of the media understand the dynamics of trafficking and adopt ethical interviewing practices with trafficking victims.
Assessment of U.S. Government Activities to Combat Trafficking in Persons: This report describes the U.S. government's successes in combating human trafficking and provides recommendations on ways to improve efforts.
Human Trafficking Research Brief: The purpose of this research brief is to review research on the relationship between sexual violence and trafficking (especially, but not limited to, sex trafficking) and shed light on gaps in existing research. The documents reviewed in this brief discuss trafficking, the frequency of sexual violence against trafficking victims, health concerns of victims, and strategies for outreach to victims.
Homeless Youth and Sexual Exploitation: Research Findings and Practice Implications: This issue brief reviews research regarding the involvement of unaccompanied, homeless youth in various types of sexual exploitation. The article recommends a series of programmatic responses to meet their needs.
Human Trafficking Assessment for Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Programs: The following document contains questions that can be used to assess a client for potential signs that she/he has been a victim of human trafficking. The suggestions and indicators below are not exhaustive or cumulative in nature and each question taken alone may not indicate a potential trafficking situation. Assessment questions should be tailored to your program and client's specific needs.
Comprehensive Human Trafficking Assessment: The following document contains questions that can be used to assess a client for potential signs that she/he has been a victim of human trafficking. The suggestions and indicators below are not exhaustive or cumulative in nature and each question taken alone may not indicate a potential trafficking situation. Assessment questions should be tailored to your program and client's specific needs.
Online Toolkit to Combat Trafficking in Persons: The 123 tools contained in this Toolkit offer guidance, recommended resources, and promising practices to policymakers, law enforcers, judges, prosecutors, victim service providers and members of civil society who are working in interrelated spheres towards preventing trafficking, protecting, assisting victims and promoting international cooperation.
Human Trafficking: The recruitment, harboring, transportation*, provision, or obtaining of a person for the purpose of prostitution and/or labor exploitation (US Department of Health & Human Services, Administration for Children and Families).
*The transportation or physical movement of the victim does not necessarily need to be present in order for the crime to occur: instead it is the presence of exploitation (force, fraud, or coercion) that indicates whether a trafficking crime has occurred (United States Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000).
Sex Trafficking: When a person does a sex act in exchange for money, and he or she is either under the age of 18 or forced, tricked, misled, threatened, or pressured into the sex act (United States Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000).
Labor Trafficking: Labor trafficking involves the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjecting victims to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery (Clawson et al., 2009).
Sex Work: The exchange of money or goods for sexual services, either regularly or occasionally, involving female, male, and transgender adults, young people and children where the sex worker may or may not consciously define such activity as income-generating (UN AIDS Inter-Agency Task Team, 2005).
Debt Bondage: The status or condition of a debtor arising from a pledge by the debtor of his or her personal services or of those of a person under his or her control as a security for debt, if the value of those services (as reasonably assessed) is not applied toward the elimination of the debt or the length and nature of those services are not respectively limited and defined (United States Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000).
Involuntary Servitude: A condition of servitude induced by means of (a) any scheme, plan, or pattern intended to cause a person to believe that if the person did not enter into or continue in such condition, that person or another person would suffer serious harm or physical restraint; or (b) the abuse or threatened abuse of the legal process (United States Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000).
Commercial Sex Act: Any sex act on account of which anything of value is given to or received by any person (United States Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000).
Coercion: (A) threats of serious harm to or physical restraint against any person; (B) any scheme, plan, or pattern intended to cause a person to believe that failure to perform an act would result in serious harm to or physical restraint against any person; or (C) the abuse or threatened abuse of the legal process (United States Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000).